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  3. A brief survey of the short story part 20: Nikolai Gogol
  4. Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol
  5. The Magic and Mystery of Gogol's "The Nose" - Mostly About Stories

Gogol also grew up learning of Cossack legends, ancient songs, and terrifying folk tales from his paternal grandmother. Like many children in school, Gogol had a hard time adjusting to and fitting in with others. Labeled as a loner, Gogol was often made fun of for his short stature and bird like nose. While Gogol found success in drama performances, he was often troublesome and caught mimicking his instructors and classmates. However, he eventually found his footing with a small group of friends that together sparked each others interest in literature and poetry.

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After school, Gogol decided to pursue poetry. In the year of , Gogol moved to St.

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Petersburg in order to fulfill his hopes of launching a literary career. With him, he brought what would be his only work in verse, a self published epic poem Hans Kuechelgarten. The publication turned out to be disastrous. Hardly anyone took notice of the work, and those that did criticized it for being derivative and strangely idyll.

The most notable attention he received was a critical review that showed up in the Moscow Telegraph. Upon returning to Petersburg, Gogol found work and continued to write until he was introduced to the most prominent writer in Russia: Aleksander Pushkin. From , Gogol released two volumes of short stories under the same name: Evenings on a Farm Near Dikanka. Volume One consisted of a preface and four short stories: Sorochintsi Fair , St.

The stories were often set in rural Ukraine, a fitting and familiar setting for Gogol. In fact, the narrator rarely was effective in focusing on narration.

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As a result, readers are presented with a discontinuous and somewhat incomprehensive plotline. In some cases, such as Ivan Fyodorovich Shponka and His Aunt , the story ends without the plot climaxing or resolving at all. While skaz frustrates some, it ultimately gave Gogol the liberty to lead the reader where he pleased independent of the story he told. The stories in both volumes were met with immediate success and catapulted Gogol to a level of fame he thus far had never experienced.

As Gogol progresses as a writer, his stories evolve from simple folk tales, but a few things remain constant. All clap their hands and hasten after him, and rush to follow his triumphal chariot. A great universal poet they dub him, one who soars high above all the other geniuses of the world […] But such is not the lot […] of the writer who has made bold to summon forth […] all the dreadful, appalling morass of trifles that mires our lives, all that lies deep inside the cold, fragmented, quotidian characters with which our earthly path swarms […] [T] he false, unfeeling judgment of the time, which will brand as worthless and base the creations cherished by him, will assign him an ignoble corner in the ranks of those writers who offend humanity, will attach to him the qualities of the heroes depicted by none but himself […] For the judgment of the time does not acknowledge that much spiritual depth is needed to illuminate a picture drawn from ignoble life and elevate it into the pearl of creation […] and that lofty enraptured laughter is worthy of taking its place beside the lofty lyrical impulse.

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The stormy reception of his comedy shocked him. I regret that no one noticed the positive character in my play. Indeed, laughter is deeper and more meaningful than people suppose. Since Gogol was hailed as a mesmerizing lector, he had reasons to worry about this soporific reception. An unfavorable reaction of a small group of friends caused Turgenev to destroy it. Turgenev was eager at the time to make a transition from the short story genre, which brought him fame with his Notes of a Hunter Zapiski okhotnika, , to longer narrative forms. He later reported to V.

Yet from the perspective of Russian intellectual and literary history, it is significant that the opposition to these works was in large measure ideological or grounded in artistic objections that do not in themselves appear sound today. It is on account of his politically sensitive obituary of Gogol, published in The Moscow News Moskovskie vedomosti 32 [] , that Turgenev was exiled to his estate and placed under police supervision in the years We know a lot about censorship as a tool of ideological surveillance in tsarist Russia.

Additions or changes to texts that continue their life to the present day was another. The story actually exists in domestic and export varieties, so to speak. This is how they report their reaction:. You yourself are not to blame at all, but one senses here some general, national guilt, something resembling a crime. This is a story not just about first love, but about the anxieties of empire, and the weight of state violence that dooms a Russian idyll.

A brief survey of the short story part 20: Nikolai Gogol

I support the second view. The Western European reader needed to be sensitized to what the cultural native could read between the lines. This would certainly have been a censorable sentiment within Russia, so it belonged between the lines. Un premier amour Paris, E. Dentu, This signals a subtle change. But for the purpose of French readers, this aspect is brought to the fore. Turgenev allows his work to participate in French essentializing of Russia. Up to this point, he had consistently done so in other volumes of his fiction translated into French, presenting himself as a purveyor of Russian couleur locale and of authentic contemporary Russia.

Rose offers an example of one mid-century chapbook edition of Robinson Crusoe that is eight pages long and mentions Friday only in the last paragraph. Translations could be geared toward foreign audiences, but the domestic audience was also further differentiated, for publishing purposes, by class or educational level.

Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol

My claim that readers should be seen as co-generators of texts may well seem obvious. We all know that writers routinely ask friends for opinions about their work-in-progress and are typically sensitive about published reviews Gogol and Turgenev certainly were. We all know about the practice of self-censorship. And it is also true that, whatever the advice, the author nearly always exercises the ultimate say.

Meaning is not an object to be decoded, but an effect of a tension between the explicit and implicit that is to be experienced. Russian readers influenced the course of Russian literature not merely from birth, but from inception. If I may be permitted a clinical metaphor, theirs were in utero interventions. The reaction against the Gogolian trend in Russian literature, to which Gogol himself and later Turgenev were subjected, was marshaled by an influential elite of readers with close ties to the authors.

Their role begins prior to the completion of a work of art. As such, we should see the reader as part of textuality, not its aftermath. The Russian readers wrote themselves into texts. As scholars, we should write them back in too. Bojanowska E. He ceased work entirely. According to all accounts he spent his last days in praying and fasting. Visions came to him.

His death, which came in , was extremely fantastic. His last words, uttered in a loud frenzy, were: "A ladder! Quick, a ladder!

The Magic and Mystery of Gogol's "The Nose" - Mostly About Stories

Reader, whosoever or wheresoever you be, and whatsoever be your station--whether that of a member of the higher ranks of society or that of a member of the plainer walks of life--I beg of you, if God shall have given you any skill in letters, and my book shall fall into your hands, to extend to me your assistance. For in the book which lies before you, and which, probably, you have read in its first edition, there is portrayed a man who is a type taken from our Russian Empire.

This man travels about the Russian land and meets with folk of every condition--from the nobly-born to the humble toiler.

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Him I have taken as a type to show forth the vices and the failings, rather than the merits and the virtues, of the commonplace Russian individual; and the characters which revolve around him have also been selected for the purpose of demonstrating our national weaknesses and shortcomings. As for men and women of the better sort, I propose to portray them in subsequent volumes. Probably much of what I have described is improbable and does not happen as things customarily happen in Russia; and the reason for that is that for me to learn all that I have wished to do has been impossible, in that human life is not sufficiently long to become acquainted with even a hundredth part of what takes place within the borders of the Russian Empire.

Best Russian Short Stories by Pushkin, Gogol, Turgenev, Dostoyevsky, Chekhov - Full Audiobook

Also, carelessness, inexperience, and lack of time have led to my perpetrating numerous errors and inaccuracies of detail; with the result that in every line of the book there is something which calls for correction.